Student Projects

The Maritime Project

Authors: Amy Callahan, Jesse Wade Robinson

Grade: 10th

Subjects: Humanities, Math, Science

Exhibition, dressed as sailor
Sailing on the Californian

Students will study the history and influence of maritume culture.  During this time, they will research as well as keep a Captain’s Log of their journey.  There are various field trips culminating with the students working on a ship for 3 days and 2 nights.  Their final products will be displayed at the San Diego Maritime Museum.

At the beginning of the Maritime project, the class will take a day-long fieldtrip to the San Diego Maritime Museum, on the water in downtown San Diego.  During this time students will begin learning about the extensive history and influence of maritime culture The students at HTH will partner with the San Diego Maritime Museum to create displays for a special exhibit on Maritime history, culture and influence. The students will host our Fall Exhibition on the historic Tallship The Star of India in December and the  displays will remain on exhibit and open to the public at the SD Maritime Museum for three months!!  As part of the Fall Exhibition, each student will choose an historic time period spanning from the Golden Age of Sail to World War II, research voyages that took place during that time period and specific people who took part in the voyage. Individually, students will write an historic voyage research paper. Then students will create a professional looking design of that ship using 2D AutoCAD.  They will also act as a Naturalist and research, “identify” and illustrate a new species of marine animal that you may have come across on your voyage.  They will then write an evolutionary history of that animal.  Students will also put their mathematical skills to the test by mapping out voyages using longitude and celestial navigation, as well as learning to use the traditional devices of sailing navigation and constructing your own working Sextant!  Each of these pieces of the project, among others, will be captured in your very own Captain’s Log and all of these will be part of the Exhibition Night display at the SD Maritime Museum, where they will present them to family, friends, and the public in a period costume that authentically reflects the time of your historic journey.  Prior to this, the students will become working crew on a 3 day, 2 night trip onboard the three-masted Tallship Tole Mour, which will sail from Long Beach to Catalina Island.  On board students will raise the sails, navigate the ship, study local ocean life and habitats, learn the history of sailing, snorkel and participate in several other exciting activities!

How have maritime discoveries, advancements, and events shaped our world?

-Research Paper on a Historical Voyage
-2D AutoCAD Drawings of Historical Ships
-Sextants
-Log Books
-Period Costume
-Naturalist Drawings
-Paper on the Evolutionary History of an Unidentified Organism

Alternative Products:
-Design and build an actual sailing vessel

What Will Students Be Able To Do:

Students will be able to:
-Research a historic event
-Write a write coherent and focused historical research paper
-Cite sources using in-text citations and a works cited
-Create a 2D blueprint in AutoCAD
-Give an extemporaneous presentation to members of the public
-Solve navigational problems using sextants, celestial navigation, and mathematics.
-Make detailed scientific observations
-Create cladograms

California State Standards Covered in the Maritime Project

English:

2.0 Writing Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)

Students combine the rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description to produce texts of at least 1,500 words each. Student writing demonstrates a command of standard American English and the research, organizational, and drafting strategies outlined in Writing Standard 1.0.

Using the writing strategies of grades eleven and twelve outlined in Writing Standard 1.0, students:

2.1 Write fictional, autobiographical, or biographical narratives:
a. Narrate a sequence of events and communicate their significance to the audience.
b. Locate scenes and incidents in specific places.
c. Describe with concrete sensory details the sights, sounds, and smells of a scene and the specific actions, movements, gestures, and feelings of the characters; use interior monologue to depict the characters’ feelings.
d. Pace the presentation of actions to accommodate temporal, spatial, and dramatic mood changes.
e. Make effective use of descriptions of appearance, images, shifting perspectives, and sensory details.

2.4 Write historical investigation reports:
a. Use exposition, narration, description, argumentation, or some combination of rhetorical strategies to support the main proposition.
b. Analyze several historical records of a single event, examining critical relationships between elements of the research topic.
c. Explain the perceived reason or reasons for the similarities and differences in historical records with information derived from primary and secondary sources to support or enhance the presentation.
d. Include information from all relevant perspectives and take into consideration the validity and reliability of sources.
e. Include a formal bibliography.

1.0 Listening and Speaking Strategies

Students formulate adroit judgments about oral communication. They deliver focused and coherent presentations that convey clear and distinct perspectives and demonstrate solid reasoning. They use gestures, tone, and vocabulary tailored to the audience and purpose.

1.8 Use effective and interesting language, including:
a. Informal expressions for effect
b. Standard American English for clarity
c. Technical language for specificity

2.0 Speaking Applications (Genres and Their Characteristics)

Students deliver polished formal and extemporaneous presentations that combine traditional rhetorical strategies of narration, exposition, persuasion, and description. Student speaking demonstrates a command of standard American English and the organizational and delivery strategies outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0.

Using the speaking strategies of grades eleven and twelve outlined in Listening and Speaking Standard 1.0, students:

2.2 Deliver oral reports on historical investigations:
a. Use exposition, narration, description, persuasion, or some combination of those to support the thesis.
b. Analyze several historical records of a single event, examining critical relationships between elements of the research topic.
c. Explain the perceived reason or reasons for the similarities and differences by using information derived from primary and secondary sources to support or enhance the presentation.
d. Include information on all relevant perspectives and consider the validity and reliability of sources.


U.S. History:

11.1 Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation and its attempts to realize the philosophy of government described in the Declaration of Independence.

11.2 Students analyze the relationship among the rise of industrialization, large-scale rural-to-urban migration, and massive immigration from Southern and Eastern Europe.

Trace the economic development of the United States and its emergence as a major industrial power, including its gains from trade and the advantages of its physical geography.

11.7 Students analyze America’s participation in World War II.

1. Examine the origins of American involvement in the war, with an emphasis on the events that precipitated the attack on Pearl Harbor.
2. Explain U.S. and Allied wartime strategy, including the major battles of Midway, Normandy, Iwo Jima, Okinawa, and the Battle of the Bulge.
3. Identify the roles and sacrifices of individual American soldiers, as well as the unique contributions of the special fighting forces (e.g., the Tuskegee Airmen, the 442nd Regimental Combat team, the Navajo Code Talkers).
4. Analyze Roosevelt’s foreign policy during World War II (e.g., Four Freedoms speech).
5. Discuss the constitutional issues and impact of events on the U.S. home front, including the internment of Japanese Americans (e.g., Fred Korematsu v. United States of America) and the restrictions on German and Italian resident aliens; the response of the administration to Hitler’s atrocities against Jews and other groups; the roles of women in military production; and the roles and growing political demands of African Americans.
6. Describe major developments in aviation, weaponry, communication, and medicine and the war’s impact on the location of American industry and use of resources.
7. Discuss the decision to drop atomic bombs and the consequences of the decision (Hiroshimaand Nagasaki).
8. Analyze the effect of massive aid given to Western Europe under the Marshall Plan to rebuild itself after the war and the importance of a rebuilt Europe to the U.S. economy.

11.9 Students analyze U.S. foreign policy since World War II.

2. Understand the role of military alliances, including NATO and SEATO, in deterring communist aggression and maintaining security during the Cold War.
3. Trace the origins and geopolitical consequences (foreign and domestic) of the Cold War and containment policy, including the following:
* The era of McCarthyism, instances of domestic Communism (e.g., Alger Hiss) and blacklisting
* The Truman Doctrine
* The Berlin Blockade
* The Korean War
* The Bay of Pigs invasion and the Cuban Missile Crisis
* Atomic testing in the American West, the “mutual assured destruction” doctrine, and disarmament policies
* The Vietnam War
* Latin American policy
4. List the effects of foreign policy on domestic policies and vice versa (e.g., protests during the war in Vietnam, the “nuclear freeze” movement).
5. Analyze the role of the Reagan administration and other factors in the victory of the West in the Cold War.


Math:

Geometry

The geometry skills and concepts developed in this discipline are useful to all students. Aside from learning these skills and concepts, students will develop their ability to construct formal, logical arguments and proofs in geometric settings and problems.

8.0 Students know, derive, and solve problems involving the perimeter, circumference, area, volume, lateral area, and surface area of common geometric figures.

15.0 Students use the Pythagorean theorem to determine distance and find missing lengths of sides of right triangles.

8.0 Students know the definitions of the basic trigonometric functions defined by the angles of a right triangle. They also know and are able to use elementary relationships between them. For example, tan( x ) = sin( x )/cos( x ), (sin( x )) 2 + (cos( x )) 2 = 1.

Trigonometry uses the techniques that students have previously learned from the study of algebra and geometry. The trigonometric functions studied are defined geometrically rather than in terms of algebraic equations. Facility with these functions as well as the ability to prove basic identities regarding them is especially important for students intending to study calculus, more advanced mathematics, physics and other sciences, and engineering in college.

1.0 Students understand the notion of angle and how to measure it, in both degrees and radians. They can convert between degrees and radians.

2.0 Students know the definition of sine and cosine as y- and x- coordinates of points on the unit circle and are familiar with the graphs of the sine and cosine functions.

3.0 Students know the identity cos2 (x) + sin2 (x) = 1:

3.1 Students prove that this identity is equivalent to the Pythagorean theorem (i.e., students can prove this identity by using the Pythagorean theorem and, conversely, they can prove the Pythagorean theorem as a consequence of this identity).

3.2 Students prove other trigonometric identities and simplify others by using the identity cos2 (x) + sin2 (x) = 1. For example, students use this identity to prove that sec2 (x) = tan2 (x) + 1.

4.0 Students graph functions of the form f(t) = A sin ( Bt + C ) or f(t) = A cos ( Bt + C) and interpret A, B, and C in terms of amplitude, frequency, period, and phase shift.

5.0 Students know the definitions of the tangent and cotangent functions and can graph them.

6.0 Students know the definitions of the secant and cosecant functions and can graph them.

7.0 Students know that the tangent of the angle that a line makes with the x- axis is equal to the slope of the line.

8.0 Students know the definitions of the inverse trigonometric functions and can graph the functions.

9.0 Students compute, by hand, the values of the trigonometric functions and the inverse trigonometric functions at various standard points.

10.0 Students demonstrate an understanding of the addition formulas for sines and cosines and their proofs and can use those formulas to prove and/ or simplify other trigonometric identities.

11.0 Students demonstrate an understanding of half-angle and double-angle formulas for sines and cosines and can use those formulas to prove and/ or simplify other trigonometric identities.

12.0 Students use trigonometry to determine unknown sides or angles in right triangles.

13.0 Students know the law of sines and the law of cosines and apply those laws to solve problems.

14.0 Students determine the area of a triangle, given one angle and the two adjacent sides.

15.0 Students are familiar with polar coordinates. In particular, they can determine polar coordinates of a point given in rectangular coordinates and vice versa.

16.0 Students represent equations given in rectangular coordinates in terms of polar coordinates.

17.0 Students are familiar with complex numbers. They can represent a complex number in polar form and know how to multiply complex numbers in their polar form.

18.0 Students know DeMoivre’s theorem and can give n th roots of a complex number given in polar form.

19.0 Students are adept at using trigonometry in a variety of applications and word problems.


Biology:

Cell Biology

1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism’s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept:
1. Students know cells are enclosed within semipermeable membranes that regulate their interaction with their surroundings.
2. Students know enzymes are proteins that catalyze biochemical reactions without altering the reaction equilibrium and the activities of enzymes depend on the temperature, ionic conditions, and the pH of the surroundings.
3. Students know how prokaryotic cells, eukaryotic cells (including those from plants and animals), and viruses differ in complexity and general structure.
4. Students know the central dogma of molecular biology outlines the flow of information from transcription of ribonucleic acid (RNA) in the nucleus to translation of proteins on ribosomes in the cytoplasm.
5. Students know the role of the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi apparatus in the secretion of proteins.
6. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.
7. Students know the role of the mitochondria in making stored chemical-bond energy available to cells by completing the breakdown of glucose to carbon dioxide.
8. Students know most macromolecules (polysaccharides, nucleic acids, proteins, lipids) in cells and organisms are synthesized from a small collection of simple precursors.
9. * Students know how chemiosmotic gradients in the mitochondria and chloroplast store energy for ATP production.
10. * Students know how eukaryotic cells are given shape and internal organization by a cytoskeleton or cell wall or both.

Genetics

2. Mutation and sexual reproduction lead to genetic variation in a population. As a basis for understanding this concept:
1. Students know meiosis is an early step in sexual reproduction in which the pairs of chromosomes separate and segregate randomly during cell division to produce gametes containing one chromosome of each type.
2. Students know only certain cells in a multicellular organism undergo meiosis.
3. Students know how random chromosome segregation explains the probability that a particular allele will be in a gamete.
4. Students know new combinations of alleles may be generated in a zygote through the fusion of male and female gametes (fertilization).
5. Students know why approximately half of an individual’s DNA sequence comes from each parent.
6. Students know the role of chromosomes in determining an individual’s sex.
7. Students know how to predict possible combinations of alleles in a zygote from the genetic makeup of the parents.

3. A multicellular organism develops from a single zygote, and its phenotype depends on its genotype, which is established at fertilization. As a basis for understanding this concept:
1. Students know how to predict the probable outcome of phenotypes in a genetic cross from the genotypes of the parents and mode of inheritance (autosomal or X-linked, dominant or recessive).
2. Students know the genetic basis for Mendel’s laws of segregation and independent assortment.
3. * Students know how to predict the probable mode of inheritance from a pedigree diagram showing phenotypes.
4. * Students know how to use data on frequency of recombination at meiosis to estimate genetic distances between loci and to interpret genetic maps of chromosomes.

4. Genes are a set of instructions encoded in the DNA sequence of each organism that specify the sequence of amino acids in proteins characteristic of that organism. As a basis for understanding this concept:
1. Students know the general pathway by which ribosomes synthesize proteins, using tRNAs to translate genetic information in mRNA.
2. Students know how to apply the genetic coding rules to predict the sequence of amino acids from a sequence of codons in RNA.
3. Students know how mutations in the DNA sequence of a gene may or may not affect the expression of the gene or the sequence of amino acids in an encoded protein.
4. Students know specialization of cells in multicellular organisms is usually due to different patterns of gene expression rather than to differences of the genes themselves.
5. Students know proteins can differ from one another in the number and sequence of amino acids.
6. * Students know why proteins having different amino acid sequences typically have different shapes and chemical properties.

5. The genetic composition of cells can be altered by incorporation of exogenous DNA into the cells. As a basis for understanding this concept:
1. Students know the general structures and functions of DNA, RNA, and protein.
2. Students know how to apply base-pairing rules to explain precise copying of DNA during semiconservative replication and transcription of information from DNA into mRNA.
Evolution

7. The frequency of an allele in a gene pool of a population depends on many factors and may be stable or unstable over time. As a basis for understanding this concept:
1. Students know why natural selection acts on the phenotype rather than the genotype of an organism.
2. Students know why alleles that are lethal in a homozygous individual may be carried in a heterozygote and thus maintained in a gene pool.
3. Students know new mutations are constantly being generated in a gene pool.
4. Students know variation within a species increases the likelihood that at least some members of a species will survive under changed environmental conditions.
5. * Students know the conditions for Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in a population and why these conditions are not likely to appear in nature.
6. * Students know how to solve the Hardy-Weinberg equation to predict the frequency of genotypes in a population, given the frequency of phenotypes.

Evolution
8. Evolution is the result of genetic changes that occur in constantly changing environments. As a basis for understanding this concept:
1. Students know how natural selection determines the differential survival of groups of organisms.
2. Students know a great diversity of species increases the chance that at least some organisms survive major changes in the environment.
3. Students know the effects of genetic drift on the diversity of organisms in a population.
4. Students know reproductive or geographic isolation affects speciation.
5. Students know how to analyze fossil evidence with regard to biological diversity, episodic speciation, and mass extinction.
6. * Students know how to use comparative embryology, DNA or protein sequence comparisons, and other independent sources of data to create a branching diagram (cladogram) that shows probable evolutionary relationships.
7. * Students know how several independent molecular clocks, calibrated against each other and combined with evidence from the fossil record, can help to estimate how long ago various groups of organisms diverged evolutionarily from one another.